This research examines the relationship between alcohol outlets and social harm. The analysis uses a longitudinal panel data set for the period 2007-2014 covering all of New Zealand.
Off-licence outlets appear to have a number of positive relationships with alcohol-related social harms, while the relationships for on-licence outlets are more mixed. These relationships have generally been smaller in earlier New Zealand research, but in this work are demonstrably larger than the effects for other outlet types.
The relationship between outlets (by type) and social harm are moderated by population and social deprivation in a number of cases (i.e. the relationship in an area depends on population and/or social deprivation). For example, an increase in licensed clubs is significantly associated with violence in areas with low populations (i.e. rural areas) but not in areas with larger populations (i.e. urban areas).