Three decades after the fall of the Berlin Wall, liberal democracy is once again at war.

This paper characterises ‘silent’ and ‘noisy’ protests against democratic politics that have grown across advanced democracies since the 1980s. The authors describe economic, socio-cultural and political shifts that have led to these protests and show that mainstream parties, in the UK and elsewhere, are failing to respond adequately.

The authors argue democratic reforms to enhance the influence of ordinary and underpowered citizens over public policy are a necessary component of any strategy to recapture lost electorates and reinforce the foundations of democracy.

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