Coastal managers face the challenges, on the one hand, of future climate change and sea-level rise and, on the other, of increased development demands, infrastructure planning, renewal and maintenance, and environmental protection. Effective management of the coastal zone by local governments under climate change and sea-level rise requires:
- consistent guidance from state and federal government on how coastal zones should be managed, with legislative support that links land-use planning, conservation and hazard protection. This includes clear guidance on the circumstances under which development should not be approved;
- systems that provide local governments with the authority to ensure compliance; and
- time and investment in knowledge, capacity and resources to transition local governments successfully to this new paradigm.
Such frameworks allow local governments to embed adaptation to climate change into their day-to-day operation and effectively manage the coastal zone under climate change.