This paper considers whether single-sex schooling affects gendered patterns in the uptake of science courses in year 11 and the development of science-related career paths. In particular, the author is interested in exploring gender differences surrounding the life and physical sciences. The author explores these issues using data from the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Differences in the uptake of life and physical science subjects by males and females occur across all schools. In girls-only schools girls are more likely to undertake physical science subjects than their female counterparts in co-educational schools, but there is no difference when it comes to planning a physical science career. On the other hand, boys in boys-only schools are no more likely to take up life science subjects than their male counterparts in co-educational schools, but they are more likely to plan life science careers.