This paper uses the action research method retrospectively to better understand the development of capability on a series of 7 Higher Education building projects during the architectural planning phase prior to the start of design. The research question is whether Takahiro Fujimoto’s explanation of the way Toyota continuously built its capability to deliver automobiles buyers wanted can inform the development of more competitive capability within design and construction companies and together on projects. This paper follows one by the first 2 authors published in the IGLC27 2019 Proceedings in which they use Fujimoto to explain the development of a capability to pre-fabricate and install exterior wall (X-wall) panels for 6 projects during construction. In this new paper the authors share their understanding of Fujimoto’s explanation and survey literature they found helpful for understanding what they observed relative to his theory. Then the authors describe “Programmatic Spatial Cost Modeling” and analyze the development, use and competitiveness of this capability across the 7 projects. In closing, the authors share their conclusions in the form of questions and speculations for further research.