This report presents bias indicators for the Australian context and discusses their concept, uses, benefits and risks. The bias indicators presented are the result of extensive consultations with local experts, including academics and practitioners working in law enforcement agencies, government and non-government organisations and community organisations. The researchers' aim was to make sure that the list would be practical and relevant to practitioners working in the fields of hate crime and hate speech.

This report is structured in two parts:

  • Part 1 introduces and discusses the concept of bias indicators, including their uses, benefits and risks.
  • Part 2 presents a general list of bias indicators (which might be used to code a hate-motivated incident), followed by discrete lists of bias indicators for specific target identities. The authors also present a separate list for online bias indicators, which might apply to one or more target identities.
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