This report launches an urgent appeal to accelerate and scale up actions to strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity in the face of changing climate variability and increasing extremes. National and local governments are facing challenges in trying to determine measures to prevent risk and address the effects of these stressors. They can be guided by existing global policy platforms and processes whereby climate resilience is an important element: climate change (governed by the UNFCCC and the 2015 Paris Agreement); disaster risk reduction (the Sendai Framework on Disaster Risk Reduction); humanitarian emergency response (the 2016 World Humanitarian Summit and the Grand Bargain); improved nutrition and healthy diets (the Second International Conference on Nutrition [ICN2] and the UN Decade of Action on Nutrition 2016–2025); and development (as part of the overarching 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development). However, it is important to ensure better integration of these global policy platforms and processes to ensure that actions across and within sectors such as environment, food, agriculture and health pursue coherent objectives. The success of policies, programmes and practices that national and local governments implement to address these challenges will also depend on cross-cutting factors, as well as specific tools and mechanisms that are adaptable to specific contexts.

Part 1 of this report presents the most recent trends in hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition in all its forms with a focus on monitoring progress on SDG Targets 2.1 and 2.2. This year the report also provides a deeper exploration of the indicator of wasting among children under five years of age. The last section of Part 1 aims to build the bridge between the first two sections by exploring the links between food insecurity and various forms of malnutrition. The current state of knowledge is presented on the pathways through which poor access to food can contribute simultaneously to undernutrition as well as overweight and obesity, resulting in the coexistence of multiple forms of malnutrition at the country level and even within the same households.

Part 2 closely scrutinizes the extent to which climate variability and extremes are undermining progress in the areas of food security and nutrition through different channels. The analysis ultimately points to guidance on how the key challenges brought about by climate variability and extremes can be overcome if we are to achieve the goals of ending hunger and malnutrition in all forms by 2030 (SDG Targets 2.1 and 2.2) as well as other related SDGs, including taking action to combat climate change and its impacts (SDG13).

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