Devolution in the context of education goes under many names. They include:
School/Site-based decision making/Management
Autonomy for local schools
Essentially it concerns the distribution of power and funding between governments and schools and structural changes in the governance, management and financing of schools.
Internationally there are significant differences in how it operates but there is general consensus amongst advocates of such initiatives that they will improve school effectiveness and student learning outcomes by producing better educational decision-making; improving school management and leadership; improving quality of teaching; leading to a more responsive curriculum; and producing more efficient use of resources.