The rapid expansion of new technologies into every sector has co­ntributed to the proliferation of alternative models of education, learning and skill signalling in global labour markets. From digital badges to bootcamps to learning and employment records (LERs), a wide range of public, private, and nonprofit initiatives and platforms have emerged to address ongoing demand for education and skills among employers and workers alike.

This paper provides a high-level map of the landscape of education and labour market innovations in formal and informal education (including the workplace), with an emphasis on digital credentials and LERs. Most of the innovation is occurring among shorter, less intensive learning opportunities that are also more job-specific or hands-on. Rather than completing a longer program, individuals bundle a combination of short-term credentials or work experiences to demonstrate their qualifications in the labour market. Moreover, the pandemic-inspired reliance on remote learning has highlighted how little we know about how to deliver learning effectively and equitably through digital platforms, and very little is known about the outcomes of digital credentials, digital wallets, LERs and other innovations.

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