This report provides an overview of the relevant scientific knowledge and considerations regarding the use of COVID-19 vaccination certificates to support a safe return to travel and other economic activities. Several vaccines, developed using different technology platforms, have proven effective at protecting against severe forms of COVID-19 and are being rolled out worldwide. Fully vaccinated individuals have a significantly decreased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and likely have a decreased risk of spreading the infection to others. Some countries have started issuing 'vaccination passes/certificates' to vaccinated individuals, allowing them to access public places and services without restrictive measures.
Proof of vaccination is also set to be used to reopen international borders without the need for some existing COVID-19 measures, such as traveller testing and quarantine. The use of COVID-19 vaccination certificates to access crowded venues is predicated on the effectiveness of the different vaccines to mitigate the risk of importing or spreading SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants. The use of these certificates for non-medical purposes also raises socio-ethical-legal questions that merit careful consideration.