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Discussion paper

This discussion paper on how teaching is taught at universities focuses on several areas for reform, including: strengthening initial teacher education programs; drawing a stronger link between performance and funding of initial teacher education; improving practical teaching experience and enhancing postgraduate teacher education for mid-career entrants.


Initial Teacher Education (ITE) has been the subject of significant national reform and review. Reforms identified by the Teacher Education Ministerial Advisory Group (TEMAG) in 2014 (TEMAG 2014) have been progressively implemented since 2015 and have led to significant progress in raising standards in the selection and preparation of teachers.

Despite these efforts, the 2022 Quality Initial Teacher Education (QITE) Review identified the need for further reform to attract high-quality diverse candidates, to ensure their preparation is evidence-based and practical and induct them well into the profession. The QITE Review made 17 recommendations and seven findings to build on the significant reforms arising from the TEMAG review. In response, the Australian Government established the Teacher Education Expert Panel (the Panel) in September 2022 to provide advice on implementing two of these recommendations and key issues raised at the Teacher Workforce Shortage Roundtable. The Terms of Reference (ToR) includes providing advice on reforms to:

  • strengthen ITE programs to deliver confident, effective, classroom ready graduates
  • strengthen the link between performance and funding of ITE
  • improve the quality of practical experience in teaching
  • improve postgraduate ITE for mid-career entrants.

The Panel is focussed on providing advice on these reforms and determining what is required to successfully and consistently deliver these reforms across jurisdictions, such as changes to the authorising environment. The Panel is mindful of the complex regulatory and funding environment in which ITE is situated, with the Australian Government funding ITE, states and territories accrediting ITE programs through Teacher Regulatory Authorities (TRAs), higher education providers delivering more than 350 ITE programs and schools supporting ITE students through practical experience and on entry into the classroom. Improving ITE cannot be addressed by any one jurisdiction alone; successfully implementing any proposed reforms to improve quality in ITE will be a shared responsibility. 

To support the successful implementation of the QITE Review recommendations, the Panel has undertaken in-depth work to identify opportunities for reform and will be engaging in targeted consultation to inform its advice. This Discussion Paper sets out the key findings of this work, opportunities and considerations for delivering on these reform areas and discussion questions to inform its advice. The Panel will provide advice on these reform areas to the Education Ministers Meeting through the Australian Government Minister for Education by June 2023.

Submissions to this consultation closed on 21 April 2023.


Related Information

Next steps: report of the Quality Initial Teacher Education Review https://apo.org.au/node/316666

Quality Initial Teacher Education Review 2021: discussion paper https://apo.org.au/node/312866

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