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First Peoples

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This guide provides case studies of international jurisdictions that have historic treaties or modern treaty-making processes, self-governance arrangements, and other mechanisms aimed at realising self-determination for Indigenous peoples. The modern treaty processes in Canada are particularly relevant as they provide an example of how treaty-making can work in contemporary practice. However, the historic treaties of New Zealand and the United States of America (USA) are also useful to consider, principally in relation to their modern relevance and significance. This paper further highlights other mechanisms aimed at achieving self-determination in Sweden, Norway and Finland, such as the establishment of Indigenous parliaments.

As the treaty process in Victoria is in its developmental stages, this publication is not intended to be comparative. Rather, it provides an overview of the nature and scope of treaties and other forms of self-determination in jurisdictions with similar historical, socio-cultural and political contexts to our own.

This paper is the third in a series of research products by the Parliamentary Library related to treaty and treaty-making processes.

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Research note no. 8 June 2018